Understand the Basics of Endometriosis

Endometriosis refers to an often painful condition marked by the growth of a tissue similar to endometrium (lining the inside of your womb) outside your uterus. The condition usually involves the tissue lining the pelvis, the fallopian tubes and the ovaries.

The endometrial-like tissue becomes thick, ruptures and bleeds with every menstrual cycle. However, since it doesn’t have a way to go out, it gets trapped. 

When the condition involves your ovaries, cysts known as endometriomas might develop. The adjacent tissue may get irritated, finally forming scar tissue and adhesions (which can cause pelvic organs and tissues to stick together). 

If you develop this condition, the best gynaecologist in Delhi can help you. Here is all you need to know about the basics of endometriosis. 


  • Painful periods (dysmenorrhea): Pelvic pain or cramps might start before a menstrual period and last many days after that. You might even have abdominal and lower back pain. 
  • Painful intercourse: You may feel pain after or during sexual intercourse.
  • Painful urination or bowel movements: You may experience this during your menses. 
  • Severe bleeding: There may be bleeding between periods or occasionally heavy menses. 
  • Infertility: Endometriosis is sometimes first diagnosed in women seeking infertility treatment. 
  • Other signs: These include nausea or bloating, constipation, diarrhoea and fatigue, particularly during menstrual periods. 

If you develop any of the above symptoms, consider visiting the best gynaecologist in Delhi right away.  


  • Retrograde menstruation: Here, menstrual blood with endometrial cells returns to the pelvic cavity through the fallopian tubes. The cells adhere to the surfaces of the pelvic organs and pelvic walls to grow, keep thickening and bleed during every menstrual cycle. 
  • Transformation of peritoneal cells: As per the induction theory, immune factors or hormones enable peritoneal cells (lining the inner surface of the abdomen) to turn into endometrial-like cells. 
  • Embryonic cell transformation: During puberty, hormones like oestrogen may cause embryonic cells to change into endometrial-like cell implants. The best gynaecologist in Delhi can educate you further about this. 
  • Surgical scar implantation: Endometrial cells might stick to a surgical incision after a C-section, hysterectomy or any other surgery. 
  • Endometrial cell transport: The lymphatic system or blood vessels may transport endometrial cells to other body parts. 
  • Immune system disorder: A condition of the immune system can prevent your body from identifying and destroying endometrial-like tissue developing outside your womb. 

Risk Factors

  • Never giving birth
  • Starting your menses at an early age
  • Undergoing menopause at an older age
  • Short menstrual cycles (ending before 27 days) 
  • Heavy menstrual periods (lasting longer than 7 days) 
  • Having a higher lifetime exposure to oestrogen or higher levels of it in your body 
  • Low body mass index
  • One or more relatives with endometriosis
  • Any health condition that prevents menstrual blood to flow out of the body 
  • Disorders of your reproductive tract 

Endometriosis, if not treated early, can lead to complications like infertility and cancer. Therefore, if you develop any of the discussed signs of the condition, opt for endometriosis treatment at a reputed maternity hospital without any delay.